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Basic Coding Principles By Mukhtiar Zamin
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Variables Principles

  • Use Descriptive and Meaningful Variable, Function, and Class Names: Choose names that accurately represent the purpose and functionality of your code elements. Clear and concise names improve code readability and understanding, reducing the need for comments. 
  • Declare Variables in the Narrowest Scope Possible: Avoid declaring variables at the highest possible scope if they are only used within a specific block of code. By declaring variables closer to their usage, you improve code readability and prevent accidental misuse or interference. 
  • Initialize Variables When Declaring Them: Initialize variables at the point of declaration whenever possible. This makes your code more robust and eliminates potential issues caused by using uninitialized variables for example NullPointerException (causes 60% bugs)
  • Minimize the Use of Global Variables: Global variables can introduce hidden dependencies and make code harder to understand and maintain. Whenever possible, limit the scope of variables to the smallest necessary context. 
  • Follow the Principle of Single Responsibility: Functions and classes should have a single responsibility, performing one specific task. This improves code readability, reusability, and testability. Split complex functions into smaller, more focused functions.
  • Avoid Magic Numbers and Hardcoded Values: Instead of using arbitrary numbers or values directly in your code, assign them to named constants or variables. This improves code clarity, makes it easier to update values later, and enhances code maintainability. 

More Principles for All, By Mukhtiar Zamin

  • Write Self-Documenting Code
Aim to make your code as self-explanatory as possible. Use meaningful variable names, well-structured functions, and clear code organization. This allows others (and yourself) to understand the code without extensive comments. 
  • Keep Functions and Methods Short and Focused
Functions and methods should ideally be concise and focused on doing one thing well. If a function becomes too long or complex, consider refactoring it into smaller, more manageable pieces. 
  • Avoid Deeply Nested Code: Excessive levels of nesting in loops, conditionals, or function calls make code harder to understand. Strive for a shallow nesting structure and consider extracting nested code into separate functions or methods. 
  • Use Proper Indentation and Formatting: Consistent indentation and formatting make code more readable and maintainable. 
  • Follow the coding style conventions and guidelines of your programming language or organization. 
  • Comment Strategically: Use comments to explain complex logic, assumptions, or caveats, rather than commenting every line of code. 
  • Keep comments up to date with the code changes, and avoid redundant or misleading comments. 
  • Properly Handle Errors and Exceptions: Implement appropriate error handling mechanisms in your code. 
  • Use try-catch blocks or error propagation techniques to handle exceptions and communicate errors effectively. 
  • Optimize for Readability and Maintainability: Prioritize code readability and maintainability over premature optimization or micro-optimizations. Clear and understandable code is easier to debug, refactor, and enhance in the long run.

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